Thursday, December 1, 2016

More information on the compromise of Czechoslovak ciphers in WWII

In The ciphers of Czechoslovakia’s government in exile I’ve added the following in the paragraph ‘Report on the compromise of the communications of the government in exile’:

The report ‘Dopady lúštenia šifrovacieho systému čs. londýnskeho MNO z rokov 1940-1945 na domáci odboj’, can be found in the archive of the Museum of the Slovak National Uprising in Banská Bystrica and in the Central Military Archive at Prague.



In the report Cigan analyzed the Czechoslovak STP cipher and found it insecure. In addition he proved the compromise of Czechoslovak ciphers by examining reports from the office of the high ranking SS official Karl Hermann Frank.

A report from November 1944 had a summary of Funkwabwehr (Radio Defense) operations and it said that during the previous month 8 radio links, whose cipher procedures could be solved, were kept under observation. Of special interest was traffic between the Protectorate and London regarding the preparations for the uprising.

In the month of October a total of 488 messages were solved and 8 cipher keys derived for the STP cipher.



In pages 37-41 Cigan directly compared the Funkawbehr decodes with some of the Czechoslovak telegrams found in the country’s national archives.

For example messages exchanged between the Minister of National Defense General Ingr and Ján Golian and Jaroslav Krátký in the Protectorate and with Heliodor Píka in Moscow.  


The author’s conclusion was that the use of insecure ciphers during wartime played an important role in undermining the operations of the Czechoslovak resistance movement and these events should be acknowledged by the country’s historians

Thursday, November 24, 2016

Decrypted Irish telegrams from 1944

In The Irish Government Telegraph Code I’ve added some decrypted Irish diplomatic messages from 1944.

Source was the German Foreign Ministry’s Political Archive - TICOM collection – File Nr. 795 Irland 1944 Entschl. Verkehr (übersetzt) zw. d. versch. Irischen Botschaften.






Enigma research by the German Army’s codebreakers

In the period 1941-44 the cryptanalysts of the German army’s codebreaking department Inspectorate 7/VI investigated the security of the Enigma cipher machine.

I’ve copied the relevant passages from the War Diary of Inspectorate 7/VI and as soon as I get some accurate translations I’ll post the text.

Unfortunately I don’t have the files of the period 1939-40. However it is clear from the TICOM reports DF-190 that the double encipherment of the indicator was identified as a security weakness and that’s why it was changed in 1940.

Thursday, November 17, 2016

Update

I’ve added the following in Soviet cipher teleprinters of WWII:

Information from the War Diary of Inspectorate 7/VI

More details are available from the monthly reports found in the War Diary of Inspectorate 7/VI.

In July 1943 a report by dr Pietsch says that the examination of Russian Baudot material revealed cipher teleprinter traffic and an effort was made to copy this traffic either by LNA (Leitstelle der Nachrichtenaufklärung in Loetzen) or Staats (Wa Pruef 7/IV C). Processing was to be carried out at Referat 13:

(2) Die eingehende Beobachtung der Baudot-Aufnahmen ergab, daß neben normalen Klar- und Chitexten auch Material anfällt, daß als eigentlicher Fernschreibschlüsselverkehr anzusprechen ist. Es wurden Maßnahmen verabredet, um das Material in einer zur Bearbeitung geeigneten Form (Lochstreifen, Einbeziehung des Verständigungsverkehrs) nach Berlin zu bekommen. Eine tiefergehende Bearbeitung dürfte nur an Ort einer Empfangsstelle (LNA oder Staats) möglich sein. Ob man jedoch beim Fehlen jeder Geräte-Kenntnis über primitive Feststellungen hinauskommen kann, bleibt abzuwarten. Über die weitere Entwicklung wird Referat 13 berichten.

In August ’43 the tapes with the Baudot traffic were examined but investigations could not be carried forwards due to the limited traffic and the many errors due to bad reception.

In September ’43 dr Pietsch and dr Doering (head of Referat 13) met with their Forschungsamt counterparts Councilors Paetzel and Kroeger (the FA’s cipher machine specialist), to discuss the Soviet cipher teleprinter problem.

Investigations continued and in November ’43 the analysts of Referat 13 succeeded in solving a long message and recovering the pure ‘key’:

6. Russischer Baudot--‐Verkehr. Es gelang, für einen längeren Spruch den reinen Schlüssel zu erstellen und damit den Geheimtext zu lösen. Schlussfolgerungen über den Bau und die Wirkungsweise der Schlüsselfernschreibmaschine konnten bisher nicht daraus gezogen werden.

In December ‘43 the departments were renamed, with Referat 13 becoming Referat b2. A second message was solved and investigations continued:

6. Russischer Baudot--‐Verkehr. Aus einem zweiten Spruchmaterial wurde stückweise der reine Schlüssel ermittelt. Weitere Materialen wurden laufend untersucht.

In February and March ’44 departments b1 (general research into cipher machines) and b2 (former 13) worked on the teleprinter problem, examining the Soviet 4-letter and 5-letter Baudot traffic and the movement of the cipher wheels of the device:

Referat b1
3. Russischer Baudot--‐Verkehre: Neu in Angriff genommen wurde die Untersuchung von russischen 4B--‐ und 5B--‐Sprüchen, die in Baudot--‐Fernschreibverkehren auftreten. Die Untersuchungen befinden sich noch im Anfangsstadium.

Referat b2
5. Russischer Baudot--‐Verkehr: Die Untersuchungen über die gegenseitige Abhängigkeit der einzelnen Impulse des reinen Schlüssels wurden an weiterem Spruchmaterial fortgesetzt.

In April ’44 department b1 stated that through analysis of the indicator groups the Soviet Baudot traffic could be subdivided into three distinct groups. The first being probably a cipher machine unlike the second and the third unclear:

3. Russischer Baudot--‐Verkehre: Durch Kenngruppenuntersuchungen gelang Trennung des Materials in drei Gruppen, von denen die erste im Gegensatz zur zweiten möglicherweise von einer Maschine stammt, während das dritte Verfahren völlig ungeklärt ist.

The report of department b2 shows that there was a meeting at Wa Prüf 7 to better organize the interception of this traffic. Investigations on the recovered pure key continued.

In the following months investigations continued but no breakthrough was achieved. There were complaints about the limited traffic intercepted.

In December ’44 four messages in depth were solved and pure key analyzed:

Russische Baudot verkehre
Aus dem anfallenden material könnte ein kompromiss von 4 phasengleichen sprüchen  gefunden werden, der zum grössten Teil gelöst wurde. Mit Untersuchungen am reinen schlüssel wurde begonnen.

In January ’45 investigations of the recovered pure key continued and in February more in depth messages were solved:

Russische Baudot verkehr
An der lösung weiterer phasengleicher sprüche wurde gearbeitet; ausserdem wurden die untersuchungen am reinen Schlüssel fortgesetzt.

The last report, of March ’45 says that investigations continued:

Russische Baudot verkehr
Die untersuchung der russischen Baudot-verfahren wurde fortgesetzt.